People on project:

Graham Gagnon

Nova Scotia Surface Drinking Water Supply Characterization

Within Nova Scotia, approximately half of the drinking water comes from groundwater sources and half from surface water sources. In general the surface water in Nova Scotia is of good quality, with very little agricultural, industrial, wildlife and human threats upstream of drinking water sources. 

Health Canada has published an updated protozoa guideline that recommends that treatment for surface water and groundwater under the direct influence (GUDI) sources be based on 3-log... 

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Monitoring Turbidity In Ground Water Resources To Assess Risk Of Waterborne Pathogen Exposure

Correlations between turbidity and microbiological water quality are frequently observed in surface water systems, where storm events tend to elevate turbidity and microbial load concurrently in surface waters. In contrast, the relationship between turbidity and pathogens in groundwater sources is not as clear, as turbidity can result from surface water intrusion or could be generated within aquifers as a result of lithology-dependent chemical reactions and hydraulic processes. This... 

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Nova Scotia On-Site Applied Research Program

Approximately 50% of the population of Nova Scotia relies on on-site systems for wastewater treatment and disposal.  Since 1986, CWRS has conducted a long-term program of applied research related to the assessment, improvement, and development of on-site systems utilized throughout Nova Scotia and described in provincial regulations.  The applied research, focusing on performance, design, and management of on-site systems, influenced much of the content of Nova Scotia On-Site... 

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First Nations Safe Water and Wastewater Initiative


First Nations communities in Canada are often small and remote systems with respect to water and wastewater facilities.  As with other small and remote communities within Canada, there are major issues with both human resource and financial capacity.  First Nations communities are further challenged by the lack of a central regulatory body and standards to follow, and currently liability lies with the band and council. Unlike other Canadian small and remote systems, First... 

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Development of a Water Safety Framework for Watershed and Water Demand Governance and Management Approaches Related to Hydraulic Fracturing

CWRS has been awarded a one year project funded by the CWN to explore water demand and watershed governance and management approaches related to hydraulic fracturing activities.  

The energy sector is increasingly looking toward hydraulic fracturing for resource extraction to meet future energy needs. As an emerging technology, greater understanding is required to bridge the knowledge gap between decision-makers, researchers, neighbouring communities and the general public. The... 

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Nova Scotia Pilot Monitoring Program for Lead in Drinking Water

Health Canada is considering lowering the guideline for lead and introducing new protocols to test for its presence in drinking water. We are conducting a pilot monitoring program for lead in drinking water with support from the Nova Scotia Department of Environment. Our aim is to gather better data on lead in drinking water in Nova Scotia. This will help the department understand whether there may be challenges to prepare for if the new guideline and protocol are established.


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Nunavut Wastewater Treatment Program

The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) developed the Municipal Wastewater Effluent Strategy in 2009.   The Strategy aims to provide a harmonized national framework for managing wastewater.  It was identified that the Far North, due to its extreme climatic conditions and remoteness, would require careful consideration in order to produce a viable means to improve human and environmental health protection. The North was therefore given a 5-year window to conduct... 

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